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Have a question about this product? This did not mean James abandoned the idea; 17th-century religion and politics were closely linked and he viewed a unified Church of Scotland and England as the first step towards a centralised, Unionist state. The — Bishops' Wars confirmed the primacy of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland or kirk and established a Covenanter government in Scotland. The Scots remained neutral when the First English Civil War began in , but grew concerned as to the impact of Royalist victory on Scotland after Parliamentary defeats in the first year of the war.
While it referred repeatedly to 'union' between England, Scotland, and Ireland, it did not explicitly commit to political union which had little support even among their English supporters. Even religious union was fiercely opposed by the Episcopalian majority in the Church of England and Independents like Oliver Cromwell. The Scots and English Presbyterians came to see the Independents who dominated the New Model Army as a bigger threat than the Royalists and when Charles I surrendered in , they agreed to restore him to the English throne.
Both Royalists and Covenanters agreed the institution of monarchy was divinely ordered but disagreed on the nature and extent of Royal authority versus that of the church. After defeat in the — Second English Civil War , Scotland was occupied by English troops which were withdrawn once the so-called Engagers whom Cromwell held responsible for the war had been replaced by the Kirk Party. Defeat in the — Third English Civil War or Anglo-Scottish War resulted in Scotland's incorporation into the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland , largely driven by Cromwell's determination to break the power of the kirk, which he held responsible for the Anglo-Scottish War.
While it established free trade within the Commonwealth, the economic benefits were diminished by the heavy taxation needed to fund the army. It was dissolved by the Restoration of Charles II despite a petition by Scottish members of the Commonwealth Parliament for its continuance. The Scottish economy was badly damaged by the English Navigation Acts of and and wars with the Dutch Republic, its major export market.
An Anglo-Scots Trade Commission was set up in January but the English had no interest in making concessions, as the Scots had little to offer in return. In , Charles II revived talks on political union; his motives were to weaken Scotland's commercial and political links with the Dutch, still seen as an enemy and complete the work of his grandfather James I. Following the Glorious Revolution of , a Scottish Convention met in Edinburgh in April to agree a new constitutional settlement; during which the Scottish Bishops backed a proposed union in an attempt to preserve Episcopalian control of the kirk.
William and Mary were supportive of the idea but it was opposed both by the Presbyterian majority in Scotland and the English Parliament. The s were a time of economic hardship in Europe as a whole and Scotland in particular, a period now known as the Seven ill years which led to strained relations with England. Deeper political integration had been a key policy of Queen Anne from the time she acceded to the throne in Under the aegis of the Queen and her ministers in both kingdoms, the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed to participate in fresh negotiations for a union treaty in Both countries appointed 31 commissioners to conduct the negotiations.
Most of the Scottish commissioners favoured union, and about half were government ministers and other officials. Tories were not in favour of union and only one was represented among the commissioners. Negotiations between the English and Scottish commissioners took place between 16 April and 22 July at the Cockpit in London. Each side had its own particular concerns. Within a few days, England gained a guarantee that the Hanoverian dynasty would succeed Queen Anne to the Scottish crown, and Scotland received a guarantee of access to colonial markets, in the hope that they would be placed on an equal footing in terms of trade.
After negotiations ended in July , the acts had to be ratified by both Parliaments. In Scotland, about of the members of the Parliament of Scotland were supportive of the Court Party. For extra votes the pro-court side could rely on about 25 members of the Squadrone Volante , led by the Marquess of Montrose and the Duke of Roxburghe.
Opponents of the court were generally known as the Country party , and included various factions and individuals such as the Duke of Hamilton , Lord Belhaven and Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun , who spoke forcefully and passionately against the union. The Court party enjoyed significant funding from England and the Treasury and included many who had accumulated debts following the Darien Disaster.
In Scotland, the Duke of Queensberry was largely responsible for the successful passage of the Union act by the Scottish Parliament. In Scotland, he received much criticism from local residents, but in England he was cheered for his action. He had received around half of the funding awarded by the Westminster treasury for himself.
In April , he travelled to London to attend celebrations at the royal court, and was greeted by groups of noblemen and gentry lined along the road. From Barnet , the route was lined with crowds of cheering people, and once he reached London a huge crowd had formed.
The Price of Freedom, Scottish Crown Series #2: Carol Umberger: - houtofisadi.ml
The Acts of Union should be seen within a wider European context of increasing state centralisation during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. This included the monarchies of France, Sweden, Denmark and Spain. While there were exceptions such as the Dutch Republic or the Republic of Venice , the trend was clear. However, this can be disputed by pointing out the simple fact that an essential part of the Act of Union was restatement of the Act of Settlement and the ban on Roman Catholics from taking the throne.
It is impossible to ignore or dismiss the importance of sectarianism. The dangers of the monarch using one Parliament against the other became apparent in the wars of and and resurfaced during the Exclusion Crisis. English resistance to the Catholic James succeeding his brother Charles resulted in his being sent to Edinburgh in as Lord High Commissioner.
30 questions on Scotland's independence which remain unanswered
In August, the Scottish Parliament passed the Succession Act, confirming the divine right of kings, the rights of the natural heir 'regardless of religion,' the duty of all to swear allegiance to that king and the independence of the Scottish Crown. It then went beyond ensuring James's succession to the Scottish throne by explicitly stating the aim was to make his exclusion from the English throne impossible without ' The issue reappeared during the Glorious Revolution. They only gave way when he threatened to return to the Netherlands and Mary refused to rule without him.
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In Scotland, conflict over control of the kirk between Presbyterians and Episcopalians and William's position as a fellow Calvinist put him in a much stronger position. Originally, William insisted on retaining Episcopacy in the kirk and the Committee of the Articles, an unelected body that controlled what legislation Parliament could debate. Both of these would have given the Crown far greater control than in England but he withdrew his demands due to the Jacobite Rising. The English purpose was to ensure that Scotland would not choose a monarch different from the one on the English throne.
The two countries had shared a king for much of the previous century, but the English were concerned that an independent Scotland with a different king, even if he were a Protestant, might make alliances against England. The English succession was provided for by the English Act of Settlement , which ensured that the monarch of England would be a Protestant member of the House of Hanover. Until the Union of Parliaments, the Scottish throne might be inherited by a different successor after Queen Anne : the Scottish Act of Security granted parliament the right to choose a successor and explicitly required a choice different from the English monarch unless the English were to grant free trade and navigation.
Many people in England were unhappy about the prospect, however. English overseas possessions made England wealthy in comparison to Scotland and had many times the number of Members of Parliament than Scotland, thus able to pass any legislation over Scottish objections.
This made unification a markedly unequal relationship, much to England's advantage. In Scotland, some claimed that union would enable Scotland to recover from the financial disaster wrought by the Darien scheme through English assistance and the lifting of measures put in place through the Alien Act to force the Scottish Parliament into compliance with the Act of Settlement.
The combined votes of the Court party with a majority of the Squadrone Volante were sufficient to ensure the final passage of the treaty through the House. Personal financial interests were also allegedly involved. In essence it was also used as a means of compensation for investors in the Company of Scotland's Darien scheme, as Even more direct bribery was a factor.
Robert Burns referred to this:. Some of the money was used to hire spies, such as Daniel Defoe ; his first reports were of vivid descriptions of violent demonstrations against the Union. Years later, Sir John Clerk of Penicuik , originally a leading Unionist , wrote in his memoirs that Defoe "was a spy among us, but not known as such, otherwise the Mob of Edinburgh would pull him to pieces. The Treaty was hated in Scotland at the time. Riots occurred in Edinburgh, as well as substantial riots in Glasgow.
Acts of Union 1707
The people of Edinburgh demonstrated against the treaty, and their apparent leader in opposition to the Unionists was James Hamilton, 4th Duke of Hamilton. However, Hamilton was actually on the side of the English Government. Demonstrators in Edinburgh were opposed to the Union for many reasons: they feared the Kirk would be Anglicised; that Anglicisation would remove democracy from the only really elementally democratic part of the Kingdom; and they feared that tax rises would come.
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